Словарь английских идиом

Словарь английских идиом. Идиомы для TOEFL

Идиома – это слово или фраза, которая имеет специальное значение, не в прямом смысле, а в переносном. Фразеологизм.  Это такая метафора. Только люди, хорошо владеющие английским языком могут понять значение идиомы. Идиомы могут быть сложны в запоминании и они требуют времени и терпения в практике. В этой статье мы выучим более 400 идиом. Эти идиомы  — современны и употребляются в ежедневной речи носителей английского языка. Они взяты из книги TOEFL Pocket Vocabulary  издательства Kaplan 2018 года.

Данные идиомы подойдут людям, изучающим английский язык на уровнях Upper-Intermediate  и Advanced, для студентов колледжей США и абитуриентов.

 

 

Словарь английских идиом

Идиома Значение Перевод Примеры
Spur of the moment Spontaneously or impulsively; without prior planning спонтанно They were supposed to stay home this weekend, but on the spur of the moment they decided to go camping instead
Elephant in the room Something that is very apparent that no one is talking about очевидное We need to stop procrastinating and  discuss the elephant  in the room
With child pregnant беременная She didn’t drink at the party because she is with child
Chicken out To refuse to do something as a result of fear струсить He’s not coming climbing with us; he’s chickened out, because he hasn’t done it in a while.
Across the board To affect everything within in a group Во всех областях She got great grades across the board of her subjects
Abide by (the rules) To accept and follow (a law, ruling etc.); to comply with Подчиняться, соблюдать Both companies claim the right to sell the product, but they will abide by the judge’s decision
Carry on (doing smth) To continue продолжать The book was so interesting that he carried on reading it after the end of study hall.

 

They will carry on with the dance lessons until they master the tango.

 

Test the waters To check the likelihood of success before proceeding Прощупать почву Before announcing  their new initiative, the politicians tested the waters by conducting polls to access the likely public response
Pan out to yield good results; to turn out well Приносить результат she has had several job interviews, but nothing has panned out  yet.
account for (something) To explain; to provide an explanation for объяснять the police asked him to account for the missing money.

 

The full moon accounts for the exceptionally high tide today.

Give it away to reveal (information that was supposed to be kept secret) Выдавать (тайну), рассказать о секрете the party was supposed to be a surprise, but my little sister gave it away.
follow suit to do the same; to follow the example set by someone else Последовать примеру  she decided to skip the tournament and the rest of the team follow suit.

 

(a reference to card games in which all players must play a card of the same suit as the one led by the first player)

grow out of (something) 1. to become too large for something; to outgrow

2. to develop on the basis of something

1. Вырасти из (одежды)

2. Перерасти во что- то

1. she gives your son’s clothes to charity when he grows out of them

 

2. this book grew out of a series of lectures I gave last year

Back up (data) to make an electronic copy (of a computer file etc ) as security in case the original is damage or deleted Сохранить копию данных The power outage wasn’t a problem because he had already backed up the files on the computer
Know the ropes to understand how things are done in particular place Знать досконально to succeed in a new job, ask someone who really knows the ropes to train you

Hence, to show someone the ropes means “The show someone how things are done “

 

(a reference to sailing ships with complicated ropes and riggings)

Back (someone) into a corner To put (someone or oneself) into a position   where there is no way out and no room to maneuver Загнать в угол His political opponents try to back him into corners so that any position he took would cause him to lose support.

 

She has backed yourself into a corner by setting the standards so high that no one- including her -can meet them

 

 

have second thoughts to reconsider Передумать, сомневаться After I saw the reading list, I had second thoughts about taking the class
Look after (a child) to take care of Заботиться о He looks after his little brother after school every day
look forward to (an event)  to anticipate (something) with pleasure Ждать с нетерпением I’m looking forward to the concert next week
look into (something) to investigate; to seek information about Расследовать, изучать, искать информацию о we are looking into buying a camper for our summer trip
cut (a person) some slack to give someone a break, to be understanding Давать поблажку My boss knew that I was going through a hard time, so when I missed the deadline he cut me some slack
First-rate  of high quality первоклассный The accommodations in that hotel your first- rate
Touch base with check in with Связаться с Even if my manager is having a busy week, he always makes time to touch base with me and catch up on the project work
Off base Missing the point, not understanding ошибочный I don’t think she watched the news program properly; the conclusions she drew were way off base
keep (one’s) options open to avoid doing anything that might rule out a future course of action Повременить с решением, рассмотреть все варианты, держать варианты открытыми She’ll probably matriculate to State University but she’s keeping his options open until she has gotten a response from all of the schools, she applied to
Bring (the facts) home (to someone) to make (the reality of something) clear Донести суть This book finally brought the complexity of the issue home to me
Bring (new information) to light to reveal; to uncover Пролить свет на Their study brought to light some long- forgotten manuscripts
See the light to finally realize something after serious consideration Прозреть, начать понимать I thought he would never agree with me but eventually he saw the light
look up to show signs of improvement улучшаться She had more tests done and the doctor say her health is looking up
look (something) up To seek information about something in your reference Найти информацию (в словаре, интернете) She looked up the words I didn’t know in a dictionary
look up to (someone) to have respect and admiration for someone Равняться на, восхищаться He had always looked up to his uncle, who was a teacher
Give (someone) free rein to put your restrictions on the behavior of (someone) Дать свободу действий The new teacher gives the students free rein to study whatever they want

 

(A rein Is a strap used to control the horse while riding)

 Rein (someone) in to control (someone’s) behavior closely Держать в узде  Whenever she began to stray from the task our supervisor reined her in
 Give (her story) the benefit of the doubt to assume that (a person or statement) is truthful until proven otherwise Дать кредит доверия, поверить на слово  His alibi is suspicious, but let’s give him the benefit of the doubt until we know more
Hold (one’s) own To perform reasonably well in a challenging situation Неплохо справляться The other runners in the race are much more experienced but she’s holding her own and will probably finish right in the middle
hold (one’s) tongue to stay silent; to refrain from speaking Придержать язык He was upset and wanted to say something, but he held his tongue
Bring (something) to mind to be reminiscent of (something); to remind Напоминать  о чем- то This dish brings to mind a meal I once had in Paris
Set the record straight to correct a false story; to provide accurate information Внести ясность The media initially reported that the escaped animal was a tiger, by the official set the record straight by announcing that it was a kangaroo
Use up (a resource) to consume (something) completely Израсходовать I couldn’t brush my teeth this morning because my brother had used up a toothpaste
size up (the competition) to evaluate or asses оценивать, составлять мнение о ком-либо The dogs growled and walked in a circle sizing each other up
back down to give up, to walk away from идти на попятный he always had to prove how tough he was; he never backed down from a fight
back off leave alone, let it be отступать she’s having a rough time; you should back off
seeing things seeing something that is not really there мерещиться  I could have sworn I saw him walk into his room 10 minutes ago, but he is not home. I must have been seeing things
Second nature something that comes naturally Вторая натура, что – то естесственное  After she gave birth, taking  care of your son was second nature to her
have (one’s) hands tied To be restricted; to be prevented from doing something Руки связаны I wish I could give you more information, but my hands are tied
lower the bar to reduce standards so that it is easier to succeed Понизить планку When no one qualified under the original criteria, the admissions committee lowered the bar
Flare up to erupt or break out; to recur Вспыхивать, разгораться, разболеться  My doctor  had said the rash on my knee was cured, but it flared up again
Ask after (someone) to inquire about the well-being of someone Поинтересоваться здоровьем He heard your mother was in the hospital and called to ask after her
hold sway To dominate; to have great influence господствовать The Dutch held sway in York until 1664, when the English took control
Go through with (something) to perform (an action) as planned, to carry out Довести до конца, придерживаться плана We went through with our plan to have a picnic in spite of the rain
end up to come eventually to a particular situation or place Все закончилось тем что…

Привело к

It ended up costing much more than we expected.

 

After walking for hours, they ended up in the same place they started

Lay claim to (property) to assert that one have the right to something; to claim ownership of претендовать на что-либо My sister always laid claim to the top bunk bed, so I was stuck on hthe bottom
Cross one’s mind to occur to one Приходить в голову I’m so accustomed to flying that the possibility of driving home never crossed my mind
hold on to to keep or retain Держаться или оставлять He considered selling his motorcycle, but he decided to hold on to it
hold out To resist or endure in a challenging situation Держаться, не сдаваться Her doctor advised her to give up meat, and she held out for 6 months before giving in to temptation
Leave no stone unturned to look everywhere; to attempt everything Сделать все возможное, обыскать все. We left no stone unturned in our search for the city’s best hot dog
cross paths you meet by chance Пути пересеклись, неожиданно встретиться They crossed paths in Italy when they both happened to be vacationing there.

 

She crossed paths with my sister in college

run into (someone) to meet (someone) by chance Столкнуться с кем-то I had not seen him in months, but I ran into him at the supermarket last week
have (one’s) work cut out for to have a lot of work to do in order to accomplish something Придется попотеть If she wants to finish this drawing before the art fair she has her work cut out for her
Get (one’s) act together To prepare oneself to accomplish something; to get organized Привести (себя) в порядок We need to get our act together if we ‘re going to finish this by Friday
on occasion  sometimes Изредка, порой On occasion, I like to shop at the mall a couple of hours away because it has great sales
On the dot at that exact time Как штык, минута в минуту We are meeting at 6:00 PM on the dot
Back to the drawing board To start from the beginning Начать с чистого листа Our permit was not approved, so we need to go back to the drawing board
Third degree intense interrogation Допрос с пристрастием When I arrived home late, my father gave me the third degree
 drop by to make a short, usually unannounced visit заскочить He dropped by for a few minutes last night
drop in on (someone) make a short usually unannounced visit to (a person) Заглянуть к On the way home we dropped in on my grandmother to see how she was doing
have (one’s) hands full to be very busy; to have a lot to do Дел невпроворот, забот полный рот She has had her hands full lately so she probably won’t be able to help you
go wrong to cause a failure; to go amiss Пойти не так, пойти наперекосяк The experiment failed, but scientists still are not sure what went wrong
Err on the side of to act in a reserved manner to prevent issue перестраховаться No one knows what level of pollutants is safe for fish, so it seems best to err on the side of conservation by stopping all pollution in the river
all kidding aside to be serious Шутки в сторону, кроме шуток We like to make fun of mom’s cooking, but all kidding aside, this taste awesome
Take (one’s) time  to proceed slowly; to avoid rushing Не торопиться, не спешить I’m taking my time on this paper, since it is not due until the end of the semester
Tighten (one’s) belt to take extreme measures in order to economize; to cut back Затянуть пояса потуже Our funding has been cut, so we’re going to have to tighten our belts and reduce the budget

 

(A reference to lose weight from eating less, which might cause someone to need a smaller belt )

touch on (a subject) To address (a topic) briefly Затронуть, коснуться (темы) The course will mainly cover the works of Jean- Jacques Rousseau. but it will also touch on some of his contemporaries, such as Voltaire and Diderot.
See eye to eye To have similar opinions; to understand each other Найти общий язык, сойтись во мнении, взглядах They have almost nothing in common, but when it comes to baseball, they see eye to eye
have a say do you have a degree of influence or power Иметь право голоса It is important for children to have a say in decisions about their activities.

 

in a democracy citizen have a voice in their government

Cherry-pick to take only the most desirable items available from among a selection Выбирать, отбирать (самые сливки) She sells the most cars because she cherry- picks the most promising customers, leaving the rest of us with reluctant ones
Do (someone) good Do you have a beneficial effect on (someone) Пойдет на пользу He has seemed very stressed out lately; a vacation will do him good
Narrow down (a list) To reduce the number of options in (a selection) Сокращать They started with a pool of 20 applicants, but the narrowed it down to 3 finalists
Draw a blank to be unable to remember or respond Потерпеть неудачу I studied thoroughly for the test. but when I saw the first question, I just drew a blank
Do (one’s) best to try as hard as possible Делать все возможное She didn’t get a perfect score, but she did her best and that is what really matters
Pull the plug to end something Покончить с The principal pulled the plug on the old school lunch program, opting for a new, healthier alternative
Pull (someone’s) leg to joke or trick someone Сыграть шутку I really thought he had failed his class, but he was just pulling my leg
six feet under Deceased, dead На том свете I went to call her, but Martha told me she’s six feet under
Bend the truth to alter or withhold information Недоговаривать или привирать He admitted he had bent the truth about the results of his test. He had not included the anomalous data
Throw down the gauntlet to issue a challenge Бросать вызов The American colonists threw down the gauntlet to England in 1776 with the Declaration of Independence

(A gauntlet is a type of armored glove, which would traditionally be thrown down by a medieval Knight in a challenge to an opponent. To accept the challenge, the opponent would pick up the glove; hence, to take up the gauntlet means “to accept the challenge”)

Throw in the towel  to accept defeat; to surrender сдаться We struggled for many years with our business, but we finally threw in the towel after realizing we needed to make major renovation
throw (someone) to the wolves To leave (someone) to face criticism or challenges alone; to abandon someone Бросить на растерзание He claimed not to know anything about the scandal, and threw his assistant to the wolves
Fill (someone) in to inform someone fully; to give someone the details Ввести  в курс дела Lisa missed the meeting during which that was discussed, so someone will have to fill her in
Fill in for (someone) To replace or substitute for Подменить (кого- то) I usually work on Mondays and Fridays but I’m filling in for Mark today
Take (someone’s) place to replace or substitute for (someone) Заменить, подменить ( кого- то) the star of the play got sick, so the understudy took her place
Come to grips with (a challenging concept) to become capable of dealing with or understanding Разобраться с чем-то many companies still have not come to grips with the new regulations
stay out of (a dispute) to avoid getting involved in Не вмешиваться, не лезть The United States state out of the first World War until April of 1917
Wear thin to become less effective due to overuse Иссякнуть, исчерпан You claim to have forgotten your homework at least once a week, so that excuse is wearing thin
Speak out (on the controversial issue) to express one’s opinions openly высказаться It was nice to hear a politician speak out about the problems facing farmers today
Think up  to invent; to make up придумать or math teacher is always thinking up new ways to make sure we do our homework
take advantage of (someone or something)  1. To exploit (someone)

2.  do utilize or avail oneself of (something)

пользоваться, эксплуатировать, воспользоваться возможностью 1.They had no interest in really being his friends; they were only taken advantage of him

 

2. She’s trying to take advantage of the many cultural experiences the city has to offer

carry out (orders) to obey; to put into action  выполнять, исполнять He carried out your instructions perfectly; everything is the way you wanted it
Meet (someone) halfway To compromise with (someone)  прийти к компромису We made several good offers, but she stubbornly stuck to her original price and refused to meet us halfway
Meet (one’s) match to find one’s equal  найти достойного соперника He’s a great chess player, but at yesterday’s tournament he finally met his match
Keep a low profile  to avoid   getting attention or publicity  держаться ниже травы, тише воды  Like many celebrities, she started keeping a low profile after she had children

 

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Словарь английских идиом

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